Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals

Alba Grifoni Daniela Weiskopf Sydney I. Ramirez Davey M. Smith Shane Crotty ∗ Alessandro Sette

Published:May14, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.015

https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)30610-3#

Highlights

• Measuring immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is key for understanding COVID19 and vaccine development • Epitope pools detect CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in 100 and 70% of convalescent COVID patients • T cell responses are focused not only on spike but also on M, N and other ORFs • T cell reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes is also detected in non-exposed individuals

Summary

Understanding adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is important for vaccine development, interpreting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis, and calibration of pandemic control measures. Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide ‘megapools’, circulating SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ∼70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers. The M, spike and N proteins each accounted for 11-27% of the total CD4+ response, with additional responses commonly targeting nsp3, nsp4, ORF3a and ORF8, among others. For CD8+ T cells, spike and M were recognized, with at least eight SARS-CoV-2 ORFs targeted. Importantly, we detected SARS-CoV-2−reactive CD4+ T cells in ∼40-60% of unexposed individuals, suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating ‘common cold’ coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.

source: cell

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