As China struggles to contain an epidemic caused by a new coronavirus, science is racing to develop vaccines to blunt the outbreak’s impact. Central to the effort is CEPI — the Oslo, Norway-based Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations — a global partnership created to spearhead development of vaccines in just this type of emergency. Two weeks after China announced on Jan. 7 that a new coronavirus had ignited a fast-growing outbreak of pneumonia cases in the city of Wuhan, CEPI announced funding for three efforts to develop a vaccine to protect against the virus, currently known as 2019-nCoV. A week later, it added a fourth. Just days after that, it announced major vaccine manufacturer GSK would allow its proprietary adjuvants — compounds that boost the effectiveness of vaccines — to be used in the response. But to

По итогам прошлого года отставание нашей страны в сфере науки и технологий выглядит катастрофическим Данные в трех важнейших областях за 2019 год привел в своем блоге сетевой аналитик Дмитрий Милин: Высокотехнологичный экспорт Китай: $654 млрд Германия: $210 млрд США: $156 млрд Россия: $10 млрд Научные статьи Китай: 426 165 США: 408 985 Германия: 103 122 Россия: 59 134 Международные патентные заявки США: 56 142 Китай: 53 345 Германия: 19 883 Россия: 963 Здесь непременно стоит отметить еще и вот какую деталь: на первый взгляд отставание России в количестве научных статей выглядит не таким колоссальным, как по двум другим параметрам. Однако, это совершенно не так. Вот что заметил по этому поводу аналитик Владислав Иноземцев:

Yu Zhao, Zixian Zhao, Yujia Wang, Yueqing Zhou, Yu Ma, Wei Zuo

doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.26.919985

Abstract

A novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) was identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December of 2019. This new coronavirus has resulted in thousands of cases of lethal disease in China, with additional patients being identified in a rapidly growing number internationally. 2019-nCov was reported to share the same receptor, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), with SARS-Cov. Here

Summary Background In December, 2019, a pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) emerged in Wuhan, China. We aimed to further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Methods In this retrospective, single-centre study, we included all confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital from Jan 1 to Jan 20, 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and were analysed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and radiological features and laboratory data. Outcomes were followed up until Jan 25, 2020. Findings Of the 99 patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia, 49 (49%) had a history of exposure to the Huanan seafood market. The average age of the patients was 55·5 years (SD 13·1), including 67 men and 32 women. 2019-nCoV was detected in all patients by real-time RT-PCR. 50 (51%) patients had

It is still too early, and available information is still too incomplete, to be certain about many aspects of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak in China. However, important elements of the management of this global health emergency—and it is an emergency of major international concern—are becoming clearer. As the outbreak accelerates, there are early lessons to be learned. The transmissibility of 2019-nCoV—or at least its geographical distribution—seems to be higher and broader than initially expected. Why? Partly this may be because of China's rapid expansion of its transport networks, especially air and high-speed rail. Wuhan is a crucial hub: linking west to Chengdu, south to Guangzhou and Shenzhen, east to Nanjing and Shanghai, and north to Beijing. With much of December a period when the outbreak went unreported and unrecognised, the population exposed to the virus is far

People showing no symptoms appear to be able to spread the novel coronavirus that has caused an outbreak in China and led world health authorities to declare a global emergency, researchers reported Thursday in the New England Journal of Medicine. If confirmed, the finding will make it much harder to contain the virus. The case described — from Germany — could help resolve one of the major unknowns about the virus, which as of Thursday night had infected nearly 9,700 people in China and killed 213. About 100 more infections have been reported in 18 other countries, but no deaths. Some viruses, including SARS, which is another coronavirus, can only be passed when a person is showing symptoms. Others, like the flu, can be spread a day or two before the onset of symptoms. If people are contagious before they become sick, they can be unknowingly spreading the virus as they go shopping or to work or to the

HKU’s Professor Yuen Kwok-yung says his team is working on vaccine, having isolated virus from the city’s first imported case. Scientists in mainland China and the United States are also racing to produce a vaccine for the deadly new coronavirus. Hong Kong researchers have already developed a vaccine for the deadly Wuhan coronavirus – but need time to test it, according to infectious diseases expert Professor Yuen Kwok-yung. Scientists in mainland China and the United States were also separately racing to produce a vaccine for the new coronavirus, which has killed more than 100 people and infected thousands. Yuen, chair of infectious diseases at the University of Hong Kong, revealed that his team was working on the vaccine and had isolated the previously unknown virus from the city’s first imported case. “We have already produced the vaccine, but it will take a long time to test on animals,” Yuen said,

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.01.30.927871v1.full.pdf+html

Prashant Pradhan, Ashutosh Kumar Pandey, Akhilesh Mishra, Parul Gupta, Praveen Kumar Tripathi, Manoj Balakrishna Menon, James Gomes, Perumal Vivekanandan, Bishwajit Kundu

doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.30.927871

Abstract

We are currently witnessing a major epidemic caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019- nCoV). The evolution of 2019-nCoV

The outbreak of a novel coronavirus in China and its spread to more than a dozen countries has presented health experts with a rapidly evolving and complex challenge. That means there are a lot of unknowns. Here are some of the outstanding questions that doctors, scientists, and health agencies are rushing to answer. (And a reminder that, already, they’ve learned quite a lot.) When are people contagious? One of the luckiest breaks the world got with the SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 was that people weren’t contagious until they developed symptoms. The same is true of MERS. As a result, it became easier for health officials to try to limit spread once they identified a new case. Public health experts watching this outbreak unfold have been hoping 2019-nCoV, which is a member of the same virus family, would follow that pattern. Now

Cercetătorii din Timișoara spun că au găsit calea spre un vaccin pentru coronavirus. Acesta se administrează pe același principiu cu cel pentru gripa normală. Specialiștii în cancer de la institutul OncoGen din Timișoara au publicat un studiu despre tratarea coronavirusului. Potrivit acestuia, vaccinul ar putea fi dezvoltat printr-o tehnologie utilizată în vaccinarea personalizată folosită în oncologie. „Există două variante: să dezvolți un vaccin cu care să vaccinezi populația la nivel global și să oprești epidemia, sau să dezvolți un medicament, cum s-a întâmplat în hepatita C sau în SIDA, care să vindece pacienții care au fost deja afectați de această boală. Noi am reluat o cercetare mai veche, la care lucrăm de vreo 4 ani. Este o metodă nouă de abordare a producerii de vaccinuri în cazul infecțiilor virale. După cum știți, a apărut tehnologia de vaccinare personalizată în cancer. Acolo lucrurile sunt mult mai

LONDON - Scientists and public health officials are beginning to get a better understanding of the coronavirus that has spread rapidly in China and increasingly around the world. But significant gaps remain. Important findings have emerged from scrutinising early cases of the novel coronavirus from China as health officials race to slow the spread of the pneumonia-like disease, which has infected more than 2,000 people, most of them in China. The first clinical data published on the lethal Sars-like virus suggest it has a stealthy quality in its early stages that could allow it to evade detection, Bloomberg reported. Two studies published on Friday (Jan 24) in The Lancet medical journal depict "a disease with a three to six day incubation period and insidious onset" with fever, cough and muscle pain, Dr David Heymann, an

"Новый возбудитель труднее поддается локализации в сравнении с аналогичными вирусами. Поэтому важным является создание вакцины. Однако большой вопрос состоит в том, не появится ли она слишком поздно", - пишет швейцарское издание Tages-Anzeiger. "Новым коронавирусом заражается все большее количество человек, и вопрос о возможной вакцине становится все более насущным. Вчера стало известно о случаях передачи вируса от человека к человеку за пределами Китая. Подтверждены несколько случаев в Японии, Вьетнаме и Германии", - сообщают авторы статьи Александра Бем и Анке Фоссгрин. "На настоящий момент Глобальная коалиция по созданию новых вакцин Cepi вложила в общей сложности 12,5 млн долларов в три проекта, в рамках которых исследователи готовы в ускоренном порядке разработать вакцину от

Some infectious disease experts are warning that it may no longer be feasible to contain the new coronavirus circulating in China. Failure to stop it there could see the virus spread in a sustained way around the world and even perhaps join the ranks of respiratory viruses that regularly infect people. “The more we learn about it, the greater the possibility is that transmission will not be able to be controlled with public health measures,” said Dr. Allison McGeer, a Toronto-based infectious disease specialist who contracted SARS in 2003 and who helped Saudi Arabia control several hospital-based outbreaks of MERS. If that’s the case, she said, “we’re living with a new human virus, and we’re going to find out if it will spread around the globe.” McGeer cautioned that because the true severity of the outbreak isn’t yet known, it’s impossible

There have been reports that the Wuhan coronavirus may be transmittable whilst asymptomatic. Professor Mark Woolhouse, Professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh “In my view it is premature to conclude, on the basis of the evidence currently available, that the new virus can be transmitted before symptoms appear. The anecdotal report from China that a single instance of asymptomatic transmission had occurred is based on the history of a single cluster of cases, it is open to alternative interpretations and there is no indication that the publicised information has been confirmed (as it could be for example, by analysis of the viral genome sequences from the patients involved). This is flimsy evidence on which to base such an important conclusion. If the National Health Commission of China have stronger evidence then it is important that they share it promptly. “In any case, this is a new virus and we are still learning about it, including how and when transmission can occur. Further, robust research on this point is urgently needed. That is because the question is crucially important. In the absence of any treatment or vaccine our main hope of controlling the epidemic is the rapid identification of cases and the immediate prevention of onward transmission through patient isolation and infection control. The efficacy of those interventions would be compromised if significant levels of transmission occurred before symptoms appeared and the patient reported to a health care facility.” Professor Bill Keevil, Professor of Environmental Healthcare, University of Southampton, said: “Since I cited the Lancaster University study suggesting an Ro of 3.6-3.8, there have been several other published estimates, one from China suggesting 3.8 and the MRC Unit in London’s very recent estimate of 2.6 (but uncertainty range 1.5-3.5). These are worryingly high numbers and support the rapidly increasingly numbers of infections. It is essential to maintain genome sequencing to understand how and how fast the virus is mutating and whether this points to development of more lethal forms. As I stressed, good containment and hygiene measures are essential, especially hand hygiene which is a principal transmission route – probably also for symptomless transmission. Wearing face masks may give a false sense of security if aerosol coughs contain submicron particles. Our paper on the related human coronavirus 229E showed it survived over 4 days on common materials such as plastics, ceramics, glass and stainless steel, making regular surface cleaning and hand hygiene paramount. Several authors have advocated everyone wearing gloves, as we do in microbiology labs, carefully removing them and then washing hands.” Professor David Heymann, Professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, said: “Virus transmission occurs when there is a high enough level of virus in the blood and body secretions of an infected person to another. Some infections can be passed from one human to another a few days before symptoms occur because there are high levels of virus and the virus then causes disease symptoms – this depends on how the virus is transmitted and that is not fully understood at present – it is known that this virus can pass from one to another through close physical contact, and more and more evidence suggests that it can be passed by droplets that spread face to face by a cough or sneeze directly on the face from one to another as was SARS. As this is a newly identified virus in humans more evidence is required to fully answer the question and that is why it is important for all contacts of persons who develop disease to be identified and observed for fever so that they can be tested if they develop a fever to determine if the fever is caused by the virus.” Prof Jonathan Ball, Professor of Molecular Virology, University of Nottingham, said: “Defining the scale of asymptomatic transmission remains key: if this is a rare event then its impact should be minimal in terms of the overall outbreak. But, if this transmission mode is contributing significantly then control becomes increasingly difficult. It’s looking like this coronavirus is behaving very differently to SARS and MERS, and this is a big concern. I would be surprised if WHO do not declare this as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.” Sunday 26th January Professor Sheila Bird, Honorary Professorship at Edinburgh University’s College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine and formerly Programme Leader at MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, said: “If transmission does occur pre-symptoms or is suspected to do so, at some point soon-ish it may be instructive & important for the Chinese health authorities to try to measure within-household transmission, taking account of household size and ages of members of the household. Little has been said as yet about the estimated fatality-rate for patients whose clinical course is completed (ie recovered alive, or deceased) but I’m sure that public health official know how important it is to do so – even if only for hospitalized cases in the first instance.” Professor Wendy Barclay, Department of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, said; “Many of the respiratory viruses that spread amongst humans do transmit even in the absence of symptoms, including influenza and

China is using AbbVie Inc’s HIV drugs as an ad-hoc treatment for pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus while the global search for a cure continues. The Beijing branch of China’s National Health Commission said that a combination of lopinavir and ritonavir, sold under the brand name Kaletra by AbbVie, is part of its latest treatment plan for patients infected by the virus, which has killed at least 56 people in China and sickened more than 2,000 worldwide. The NHC said that while there is not yet any effective anti-viral drug, it recommends patients are given two lopinavir and ritonavir tablets twice a day and a dose of alpha-interpheron through nebulization twice daily. Medical journal Lancet said on Friday that a clinical trial is under way using ritonavir and lopinavir to treat cases of the new coronavirus. Meanwhile, China’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention will start developing a vaccine, according to the Global

Free Joomla! template by L.THEME