Fei Zhou, MD † Ting Yu, MD †Ronghui Du, MD †Guohui Fan, MS †Ying Liu, MD †Zhibo Liu, MD †et al.

Published:March 11, 2020

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3

Summary

Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have

A new approach would use RNA or DNA to help the body develop antibodies to the rapidly spreading illness. A U.S. military research program that seeks a new way to boost a body’s immunity to viruses could change how governments and militaries prepare for pandemics — and might even arrive soon enough to help with the COVID-19 outbreak. DARPA’s Pandemic Prevention Platform isn’t looking to create a vaccine, which can take years to produce and weeks to take effect in the body. Rather, the goal is to identify the specific monoclonal antibodies that the body naturally produces when it encounters a virus, and then trick the body into producing the one that guards against a specific illness. That could serve as a temporary, months-long shield that can protect the individual from the pathogen until a vaccine can be brought

For many countries staring down fast-rising coronavirus case counts, the race is on to “flatten the curve.” The United States and other countries, experts say, are likely to be hit by tsunamis of Covid-19 cases in the coming weeks without aggressive public health responses. But by taking certain steps — canceling large public gatherings, for instance, and encouraging some people to restrict their contact with others — governments have a shot at stamping out new chains of transmission, while also trying to mitigate the damage of the spread that isn’t under control. The epidemic curve, a statistical chart used to visualize when and at what speed new cases are reported, could be flattened, rather than being allowed to rise exponentially. “If you look at the curves of outbreaks, they go big peaks, and then come down. What we

Jonathan Dushoff, Sang Woo Park

doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.02.974048

This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review.

Abstract An epidemic can be characterized by its speed (i.e., the exponential growth rate r) and strength (i.e., the reproductive number ℛ). Disease modelers have historically placed much more emphasis on strength, in part because the effectiveness of an intervention strategy is typically evaluated on this scale. Here, we develop a mathematical framework for this classic, strength-based paradigm and show that there is a corresponding speed-based paradigm which can provide

The emergence of a new infectious disease that rapidly spreads around the world, like Covid-19, makes disaster planning experts move into overdrive. Lessons learned over the last decade can help cope with the spread of the novel coronavirus. In the spring of 2009, a new type of flu virus, called H1N1, was detected in the United States. It spread across the U.S and to other countries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has estimated that, in the U.S. alone, between April 2009 and April 2010 H1N1 sickened more than 60 million people, caused 275,000 hospitalizations, and killed more than 12,000 people. In the midst of a summer lull in H1N1 cases, the Institute of Medicine (now the National Academy of Medicine) convened a committee to come up with guidance for clinicians and hospital administrators who might need to

Longxian Lv, Gaolei Li, Jinhui Chen, Xinle Liang, Yudong Li

doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.27.969006

This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review.

Comparative genomic analysis revealed specific mutation pattern between human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and Bat-SARSr-CoV RaTG13 Longxian Lv, Gaolei Li, Jinhui Chen, Xinle Liang, Yudong Li doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.27.969006 This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review. Abstract The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) is a member of the family coronaviridae and contains a single-stranded RNA genome with positive-polarity. To reveal

HANGZHOU (XINHUA) - Chinese researchers have recently found the coronavirus in tears and conjunctival secretions from one patient infected with the virus. A research team from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine conducted a study on samples collected from 30 patients who were confirmed to be infected with the virus from Jan 26 to Feb 9 at the hospital. Among them, two samples of tear and conjunctival secretions obtained from one patient with conjunctivitis tested positive for the new virus, while 58 samples from other patients showed negative results. Dr Shen Ye, deputy head of the hospital, said that through antiviral treatment, the patient's conjunctivitis has improved with negative results in the eyes. The study suggests that there is a risk of coronavirus transmission via the eyes, and the respiratory tract may not be the only way to spread the virus, Dr Shen said. It also

(Reuters) - U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) director Robert Redfield told the U.S. Congress on Thursday that his agency is aggressively evaluating how long coronavirus can survive and be infectious on surfaces. “On copper and steel its pretty typical, it’s pretty much about 2 hours,” Redfield said at a House of Representatives hearing on the government response to the fast-spreading virus. “But I will say on other surfaces - cardboard or plastic - it’s longer, and so we are looking at this.” He said infections contracted from surfaces rather than through the air could have contributed to the outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship. Still, Redfield said he did not think surface transmission would impact cargo shipments. Redfield also said the mortality of the virus could be lower outside of China. “We don’t have the data, but I at least suspect if you look at the mortality rate of this disease outside of China,

People who contract the novel coronavirus emit high amounts of virus very early on in their infection, according to a new study from Germany that helps to explain the rapid and efficient way in which the virus has spread around the world. At the same time, the study suggests that while people with mild infections can still test positive by throat swabs for days and even weeks after their illness, those who are only mildly sick are likely not still infectious by about 10 days after they start to experience symptoms. The study, by scientists in Berlin and Munich, is one of the first outside China to look at clinical data from patients who have been diagnosed with Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, and one of the first to try to map when people infected with the virus can infect others. It was published Monday on a preprint server, meaning it

Researches at Israel’s Ministries of Science and Technology and Agriculture told reporters on Thursday that the anti-coronavirus vaccine for fowls they developed in the past four years can be adapted for humans. They estimate that it would take around two months for preclinical tests and a third month to be ready for vaccinating humans – if it is approved by international medical monitoring authorities. The researchers confirm finding close genetic similarities between the virus infecting fowls and the strain currently raising fears of a global human pandemic. Their transmission mechanisms are identical, say the Israeli research teams, which are led by Prof. Yaakov Pitkovsky, Dr. Hen Katz and Dr. Ehud Shahar. source: debka

In the months since the novel coronavirus rose from a regional crisis to a global threat, drug makers large and small have scrambled to advance their best ideas for thwarting a pandemic. Some are repurposing old antivirals. Some are mobilizing tried-and-true technologies, and others are pressing forward with futuristic approaches to human medicine. Here’s a guide to some of the most talked-about efforts to treat or prevent coronavirus infection, with details on the science, history, and timeline for each endeavor. Gilead Sciences Approach: Treatment Stage: Phase 3 Gilead’s remdesivir, an intravenous treatment, has already been used to treat one infected patient in the U.S. and will soon be deployed in a pair of large, late-stage studies in Asia. Later this month, Gilead will recruit about 1,000 patients diagnosed with the coronavirus to determine whether multiple doses of remdesivir can reverse the

Yan Bai, MD1; Lingsheng Yao, MD2; Tao Wei, MD3; et alFei Tian, MD4; Dong-Yan Jin, PhD5; Lijuan Chen, PhD1; Meiyun Wang, MD, PhD Author Affiliations

Article Information 1Department of Medical Imaging, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China 2Department of Radiology, Anyang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Anyang, Henan, China 3Department of Radiology and Interventional, the Fifth People's Hospital of Anyang, Anyang, Henan, China 4Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China 5Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China JAMA.

It has been two months since China announced a previously unknown virus had been identified as the cause of a new outbreak in the city of Wuhan. In the weeks since then, the coronavirus — now called SARS-CoV2 — has raced around the globe, igniting major outbreaks in Iran, South Korea, Italy, Japan and now, it seems, Seattle. There are still many, many questions about this virus and the disease it causes, Covid-19. But in a matter of mere weeks, a number of features of the disease have come into focus, through extraordinarily rapid sharing of research. “Eight weeks into Covid-19, there’s quite a lot that we are learning,” Maria Van Kerkhove, who heads the World Health Organization’s emerging diseases and zoonoses unit, said in a recent interview. (Zoonoses are diseases that jump to people from animals.) Kerkhove spoke to STAT after returning to the agency’s headquarters in Geneva after two weeks

Marius Gilbert, PhD † Giulia Pullano, MSc Francesco Pinotti, PhD Eugenio Valdano, PhD Chiara Poletto, PhD Prof Pierre-Yves Boëlle, PhD et al.

Summary Background The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has spread from China to 25 countries. Local cycles of transmission have already occurred in 12 countries after case importation. In Africa, Egypt has so far confirmed one case. The management and control of COVID-19 importations heavily rely on a country's health capacity. Here we evaluate the preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against their risk of importation of COVID-19. Methods We used data on the volume of air travel departing from airports in the infected provinces in China and directed to Africa to estimate the risk of importation per

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